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If no randomized trials exist, clinicians and funders of care can still act on the results from observational RCD and other evidence, but they should consider that treatment effects could be more uncertain and substantially smaller than what RCD studies suggest. Therefore, decisions for widespread adoption and reimbursement of expensive interventions with evidence based entirely on RCD may be best withheld until trial evidence becomes available. Large randomized trials might still be needed to address critically important clinical questions for patient relevant outcomes. 1 77 78

What is already known on this topic

Observational studies using routinely collected data (RCD studies) are increasingly used to inform healthcare decisions when RCTs are not available

However, observational studies have an inherent risk of bias due to confounding by indication

Another difficulty is the accuracy and reliability of routinely collected data

What this study adds

RCD studies systematically and substantially overestimate mortality benefits of medical treatments compared with subsequent trials investigating the same question

Observational RCD studies might not necessarily provide very reliable answers on how to best treat patients; caution is needed to prevent misguided clinical decision making

If no randomized trials exist, clinicians and funders of care should consider that treatment effects are probably more uncertain and substantially smaller than RCD studies suggest; decisions for widespread adoption and reimbursement of expensive interventions might be best withheld until trial evidence becomes available


We thank Hannah Ewald, University of Basel, for support in the risk of bias assessment.

Contributors: LGH and JPAI conceived the study. All authors extracted and analyzed the data and interpreted the results. LGH wrote the first draft and all authors made revisions on the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the paper. JPAI is the guarantor.

Funding: This study was supported by the Commonwealth Fund, a private independent foundation based in New York City. The views presented here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Commonwealth Fund, its directors, officers, or staff. The Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics received support from Santésuisse, the umbrella association of Swiss social health insurers. The Meta-Research Innovation Center at Stanford is funded by a grant by the Laura and John Arnold Foundation. The work of JPAI is supported by an unrestricted gift from Sue and Bob O’Donnell. The funders had no role in design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript or its submission for publication.

Frequency bands: 2.4 GHz

Depending on the standard, some Wi-Fi devices use either the 2.4 GHz or the 5 GHz band, while others that use both of these are called dual-band devices.

Wi-Fi standards decide the speed and range of a Wi-Fi network. Generally later standards are backward compatible with earlier ones.

802.11b: This was the first commercialized wireless standard. It offers a top speed of 11 Mbps and operates only on the 2.4 GHz frequency band. The standard was first available in 1999 and is now totally obsolete; 802.11b clients, however, are still supported by access points of later Wi-Fi standards.


802.11a: Similar to 802.11b in terms of age, 802.11a offers a speed cap of 54 Mbps at the expense of much shorter range, and uses the 5 GHz band. It's also now obsolete, though it's still supported by new access points for backward compatibility.


802.11g: Introduced in 2003, the 802.11g standard marked the first time wireless networking was called Wi-Fi. The standard offers the top speed of 54 Mbps but operates on the 2.4 GHz band, hence permitting better range than the 802.11a standard. It's used by many older mobile devices, such as the Cheapest online PIAMPIANI Loafers outlet footlocker finishline Tr9lBtvW
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. This standard is supported by access points of later standards. 802.11g is also becoming obsolete.


802.11n or Wireless-N: Available since 2009, 802.11n has been the most popular Wi-Fi standard, with lots of improvements over the previous ones, such as making the range of the 5 GHz band more comparable to that of the 2.4 GHz band. The standard operates on both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands and started a new era of dual-band routers, which accommodate two access points, one for each band. There are two types of dual-band routers: selectable dual-band routers (now defunct) that can operate in one band at a time and true dual-band routers that simultaneously transmit Wi-Fi signals on both bands.

802.11n or Wireless-N: selectable dual-band true dual-band

On each band, the Wireless-N standard is available in three setups, depending on the number of spatial streams being used: single-stream (1x1), dual-stream (2x2) and three-stream (3x3), offering cap speeds of 150 Mbps, 300 Mbps and 450 Mbps, respectively. This in turns creates three types of true dual-band routers: N600 (each of the two bands offers a 300 Mbps speed cap), N750 (one band has a 300 Mbps speed cap while the other caps at 450 Mbps) and N900 (each of the two bands allows up to 450 Mbps cap speed).

single-stream dual-stream

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5 February 2018

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The US Pentagon's Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) is missing documentation for how it spent hundreds of millions of US dollars, a new audit finds.

The firm Ernst and Young found the agency could not account for $800m (£572m), according to Politico .

The money was reportedly used for military construction projects and computer systems.

DLA confirmed failure to properly track its spending, but said there was no "loss of accountability".

"DLA concurs with Ernst and Young's assessment of our failure to properly account for and track funding to specific construction projects," a DLA spokeswoman told the BBC.

"While there were shortcomings in documentation, there was no loss of accountability of real property or associated funding."

She said that the DLA was the first agency of its size and complexity in the department to undergo an audit and that they "did not anticipate achieving a 'clean' audit opinion in the initial cycles".

The spokeswoman said the DLA, which was founded during World War II, is already taking steps to improve.

"As stewards of the American taxpayers' dollars, our goal is to make significant progress towards compliance during the FY 2018 audit cycle," she said.

The Defence Department, which has an annual budget of $700bn, has reportedly never undergone a full audit.

President Donald Trump and congressional Republicans advocate billions of dollars in additional funding for the department.

According to the report, the audit raises concerns about how the agency handles its budget.

"If you can't follow the money, you aren't going to be able to do an audit," said Republican Senator Chuck Grassley.

The DLA is one of the largest agencies in the Pentagon, employing 25,000 people with an annual budget of $40bn, according to Politico.

The Pentagon's annual budget exceeds half-a-trillion dollars.

Of the unaccounted money, $465m was found to be used for construction projects for the Army Corps of Engineers and other agencies, the report said.

The agency also failed to produce documentation for $100m of computer systems.

The report covers the fiscal year that ended in September 2016.

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Negotiation is a skill that everyone should have in their arsenal, whether they use it on a professional level or not. It’s not only helpful in sales, but also when ironing out details between you and an employer. With that in mind, there’s no better place to show off your negotiation tact than during the interview process. To improve, take a logic class. Or better yet, read up on how scientists pick arguments apart , and learn from their secrets.

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In the job market, the term “service orientation” refers to a candidate’s ability to be of service to an organization. Essentially, it means that you can engage with your co-workers and clients in a service-oriented capacity, by anticipating and helping out when and where needed. You can think of it as being collaborative, in a sense. Big companies already incorporate service oriented structures into their folds, like Microsoft .

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This is another key trait or skill that you should already be honing. Using good judgment and having the ability to make good decisions is what gets people to the top. And one bad decision can ruin your whole career. It starts at home, too. Deciding to delegate your time wisely, go to bed at a reasonable hour, and take care of yourself physically is going to pay dividends, while showing up to work hungover the next day will demonstrate that you lack good judgment.

Decision-making skills are important now, and they will be in the future.

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, like service orientation, is the ability to have your finger on the pulse of the feelings and prevailing attitudes swirling around you. In a managerial role, you’ll need to know what your subordinates are feeling and thinking, and having that ability –along with the necessary skills to lead or guide people through or around emotion –is what the experts are referring to.

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This is one of the more straightforward entries on the list. Can you coordinate with others? That is, are you a team player, who can efficiently and effectively manage your time, and not waste that of your clients and coworkers? If you can, then great –that’s what employers need. Time is the most valuable resource on the planet, and a lot of money is spent to manage it more effectively. That starts with coordination.

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As many of the others skill have been building up to, employers need individuals who can manage people. That involves wrapping up emotional intelligence, coordination, good judgment, etc., all into one package. People can be difficult to manage, and the ability to effectively do so generally comes with a lot of perks, like bigger salaries. But it can be a lot of work, and a significant challenge for many.


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